APA Style

When you are writing papers for social sciences like psychology, sociology, anthropology, and political science, etc., you must write according to APA (American Psychological Association) Style. Check our APA Citation Generator!

This style utilizes parenthetical citations and a final "References" page. If your reference goes past one line, you must indent the second line from the left margin. A good indent is about half an inch. It should just align with the other references that also go past one line.

Formatting Quotations

With quotations that are less than 40 words, you should incorporate them into the text with double-quotation marks. If it is more than 40 words, you should set it off in a free-block line without quotation marks. This block quotation should begin on a new line and it should be indented one-half inch off the left margin. If your paper is double-spaced, then this block quote should be double-spaced as well. Before the quote, if your sentence is complete, you use a colon. Otherwise, punctuate as if the sentence with the quotation were uninterrupted text.

1. A Book with One Author

In-Text Citation

(McGrath, 1967, p. 42)

Reference List

McGrath, E. (1967). Myths of the nuclear family. Seattle, WA: American Family Press.

2. Two or More Works by One Author

In-Text Citation

(McGrath, Myths of the nuclear family, 1967, p. 24)

(McGrath, Single parent households, 1992, p. 204)

Reference List (Arrange by year of publication starting with the earliest)

McGrath, E. (1967). Myths of the nuclear family. Seattle, WA: American Family Press.

McGrath, E. (1992). Single parent households. Berkeley, CA: University of California Berkeley Press.

3. A Book with Two to Six Authors

In-Text Citation

(Smith, Carson, Sonntag, & Lindemann, 1998, p. 47)

!!!!! For works with two authors, always cite both authors' names in an in-text citation. With works with three to five authors, cite all the authors in the first citation. After that, just cite the name of the first author with et-al after it. (For ex: Smith et-al 1998, p. 48)

Reference List

Smith, D., Carson, A., Sonntag, E. & Lindemann, P. (1998). Gay teenagers in repressive societies. New York: Scientific Press.

4. A Book with More than Six Authors

In-Text Citation

(Dunlap et al., 2005, p. 10)

Reference List

Dunlap, B., Lopez, M., Bloom, T., Kowalski, J., Chang, H., Dubois, A., et al. (2005). Growing up Esperanto: Speaking the universal language as your first language. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

5. A Book by a Corporate Author

In-Text Citation

For this type of work, you should give the entire text name with the group that published it when it first appears in your work. After this, just refer to it by the text's name.

Reference List

Australian Kangaroo Studies Association. (2005). Annual kangaroo population report. Brisbane, Australia: Author.

6. Article or Chapter from an Edited Work

In-Text Citation

(Johnson, 1998, pp. 325-328)

Reference List

Johnson, K.M. (1998) Brain activity in comatose patients. In J.B. Torrance (Ed.), Treatment and care of comatose patients (pp.325- 358). St. John's, Newfoundland: Newfoundland Science Publishing.

7. Article in a Scholarly Journal

In-Text Citation

(Houser & Collins, 2006, pp. 8-30)

Reference List

Houser, L.J., & Collins, M.I. (2006). Children of divorce and lasting implications. Journal of Divorce, 27, 5-35.

8. Secondary Sources

In-Text Citation

Try and phrase a secondary source like this:

Jones and Cantrell (as cited in Williams, 2004) indicated that "when working with young primates, zoologists should take special care to notice interfamilial relationships" (p. 205).

Reference List

Williams, J. (2003). Early primate familial relations. Zoology Quarterly, 24, 200-220.

9. Article in a Newspaper with a Named Author

In-Text Citation

(Fortinbras, 2003)

Reference List

Fortinbras, G. (2003, August 29). Implications of no child left behind. The Scranton Scoop, pp. B2, B3.

10. Article in a Newspaper, No Named Author

In-Text Citation

("Coping with college admissions anxiety," 2005)

Reference List

Coping with college admissions anxiety. (2005, October 22). The Scranton Scoop, pp. A1, A3.

11. Electronic Sources

In-Text Citation

(Lukic, 2007)

Reference List

Lukic, D. (2007). Physical effects of depression. Depression Studies. Retrieved November 20, 2009, from http://www.depressionstudies.com/physdep.html