Chicago Manual of Style

The Chicago Manual of Style is primarily used for the humanities subjects like history and art history. An important distinction of Chicago Style is that it uses footnotes or endnotes instead of parenthetical references within the text. With footnotes, the in-text bibliographic information is located at the bottom of every page. With endnotes, all the in-text references will be located at the end of the text at the end of a chapter or before the bibliography in numerical order. Chicago Style also stipulates that all footnotes should be indented five spaces from the margin. After giving the first footnote of a work that you have used, just abbreviate it by giving the author's last name, a short form of the title along with the page number(s). Check our Chicago Citation Generator!

The complete list of sources used is called a "bibliography" and is the final page in a paper or thesis in Chicago Style. All authors should be listed alphabetically in the bibliography. Additionally, if your citation goes past one line in your bibliography, you must indent it from the left margin. A good indent is about half an inch. It should align with the other listed bibliographic sources that go on past one line.

Formatting Quotations

If a quotation is shorter than four lines, it should be embedded within the text and put within quotation marks. If it is longer, however, it should be put into a free-standing block that is indented one-half inch from the left margins with all subsequent lines lining up to the first indented line.

1. One Author

Footnote/Endnote

1. Emily Howard, Queen Victoria: Her Reign and Personal Life (Bristol: Penguin, 1986), 24.

Bibliography

Howard, Emily. Queen Victoria: Her Reign and Personal Life. Bristol: Penguin, 1986.

2. Two or Three Authors

Footnote/Endnote

2. Elizabeth Cantor, Natalie Edgewood, Lilly Wren, Women Tapestry Makers in Fourteenth-Century France (Manchester: Scholarly, 1997), 57.

Bibliography

Cantor, Elizabeth, Natalie Edgewood, and Lilly Wren. Women Tapestry Makers in Fourteenth-Century France. Manchester: Scholarly, 1997.

3. Work in an Anthology

Footnote/Endnote

3. Anna Gilder, "Reinterpretations of Femininity in Wartime Belarus," in Women at War, ed. Timothy Hale (New Haven, CN: Yale, 1995), 43.

Bibliography

Gilder, Anna. "Reinterpretations of Femininity in Wartime Belarus." In Women at War, edited by Timothy Hale, 40-55. New Haven, CN: Yale, 1995.

4. Article in a Journal

Footnote/Endnote

4. Ben Snieg, "Biedermeier in 19th Century Krakow," Central European Art 24, no.5 (2008): 64.

Bibliography

Snieg, Ben. "Biedermeier in 19th Century Krakow." Central European Art 24, no. 5 (2008): 50-70.

5. Electronic Journal Article

Footnote/Endnote

5. Meredith Pineda, "Definitions of the Masculine in Ancient Mesopotamia," Gender and Sexuality Studies 102, no. 7 (2006), par. 15, http://links.jstor.org/pineda/102/7.

Bibliography

Pineda, Meredith. "Definitions of the Masculine in Ancient Mesopotamia." Gender and Sexuality Studies 102, no. 7 (2006), http://links.jstor.org/pineda/102/7.

6. Popular Magazine Article

Footnote/Endnote

6. Matt Jeordie, "How to Fix the Deficit," The Economist, June 5, 2009, 105.

Bibliography

Jeordie, Matt. "How to Fix the Deficit." The Economist, June 5, 2009, 100-115.

7. Newspaper Article

Footnote/Endnote

7. Katerina Lopez, "Fracking and its Fatal Consequences," Environmentalist Weekly, January 15, 2010, A5.

Bibliography

Lopez, Katerina. "Fracking and its Fatal Consequences." Environmentalist Weekly, January 15, 2010, A5.

8. Website

Footnote/Endnote

8. Ruth Berman, Women in High Risk Jobs, http://www.wihrj.bolgspot.com

Bibliography

Berman, Ruth. Women in High Risk Jobs, http://www.wihrj.bolgspot.com.